This chapter explains several considerations for examining the external environment that executives must monitor to lead their organizations strategically. Executives must be aware of trends and changes in the general environment, as well as the condition of their specific industry, as elements of both have the potential to change considerably over time. While PESTEL analysis provides a useful framework to understand the general environment, Porter’s five forces is helpful to make sense of an industry’s profit potential. Strategic groups are valuable for understanding close competitors that affect a firm more than other industry members. When executives carefully monitor their organization’s environment using these tools, they greatly increase the chances of their organization being successful.