As you may have guessed by now, the rule of law is important to business. Can you imagine trying to do business without being able to have any reasonable expectations of other people’s behavior? Would you be willing to conduct business if you had no legal means by which to protect your property interests? And in the case of a dispute, without a rule of law system, there would be no established way of resolving it. Without the rule of law, business would be chaotic. This section provides some overarching examples of why the rule of law is important to business.
Before getting to those examples, imagine this: What if you did not know how to play chess, but you tried to play anyhow? You would probably become frustrated very quickly, because you would see no logic in the movement of your opponent’s pieces, and you would not be permitted to move some pieces like you might wish to. Sometimes you would see your opponent move his or her knight two spaces in one direction and then one space in another. Other times, you would see your opponent move his or her bishop diagonally. Moreover, you would not understand what you were and were not permitted to do. You would also not know how to penalize an opponent who moved his or her pieces incorrectly to gain advantage or to take something of yours. This is analogous to what it’s like to do business without understanding the rules of the game.
The rule of law establishes rules that people—and businesses—must follow to avoid being penalized. The rule of law not only allows people to understand what is expected of them in their personal capacities but also sets forth rules for businesses so that they, too, know what is expected of them in their dealings and transactions. In addition, it restrains government and others from infringing on property rights. Should disputes arise, the rule of law provides a peaceful and predictable means by which those disputes can be resolved.
The rule of law provides guidance and direction in every area of business. For example, it provides a means to bring a complaint against another party to a neutral decision maker so that a decision can be made regarding the dispute. Because of our rule of law system, we know that we are permitted to file a complaint in the proper court to commence litigation. Or we can try an alternative method of dispute resolution if we do not wish to engage in litigation. We know that we are permitted to do these things because our rule of law system allows us to do them. Moreover, we can expect some sort of resolution when we institute such a proceeding. This expectation is reasonable only because we have a rule of law.
Additionally, in the United States, the rule of law provides a sophisticated system of federalism, where state and federal laws coexist. This allows people and businesses to determine which system of government pertains to them and which jurisdiction they belong to. Imagine that you sell firearms in a retail capacity. You would be subject to both state and federal laws. You would be required to carry a federal permit from the federal administrative agency known as the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. You would be forbidden from engaging in illegal arms trading. According to state laws, you would likely have to ensure that each purchaser of a firearm held a valid permit for a firearm. You would be required to check identification, enforce waiting periods, and refuse to sell guns to people who were not permitted to carry them according to your state’s laws. If we did not have a rule of law system, you might be uncertain how to conduct your business, and you would be subject to arbitrary enforcement of unstated or ex post factoA type of law that is applied retroactively to its passage. (retroactive) laws that affected your business.
The rule of law also governs contracts between people and between merchants. Under the common law system, certain elements of a contract must exist for the contract to be enforceable. Under the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), merchants are governed by a separate set of rules that anticipate and allow for flexibility in contractual terms, to facilitate business needs. In the event that terms conflict in an offer and acceptance between merchants, the UCC allows “gap fillers” to complete the terms of the contract without need for the contract to be rewritten or for formal dispute resolution. Moreover, businesses rely on the rule of law to help them enforce contracts against contractors who fail to perform.
Additionally, because we have a rule of law system, employers know the rules of the game regarding their relationship to employees, and employees know the rules with respect to their obligations to employers. Likewise, business partners, members of boards of corporations, and members of limited liability companies all know what is expected of them in their roles vis-à-vis the business and other people within their organizations. When someone does something that is not permitted, there is legal recourse.
The rule of law also provides protection for property. Imagine if we did not have protection for nontangible property, such as intellectual property like trade secrets, trademarks, or copyrights. It would be very difficult to protect this type of property if we did not know the rules of the game. People would not have the incentive to create or share new intellectual property if they had no reasonable expectation of being able to protect it or of being rewarded for their creations. Likewise, the rule of law allows us to protect tangible property without having to go to extraordinary measures. For instance, if we had no rule of law system to convey and maintain legal ownership to us for our real or personal property, we might be forced to hire expensive private security forces to guard our property when we could not be there to physically protect it ourselves.
Businesses also rely on the rule of law to govern their debtor and creditor relationships. And, if financial matters do not go as anticipated, our legal system allows businesses to ask the court for protection from creditors under our bankruptcy law. This allows businesses to protect their property from creditor repossessions or foreclosures while they get back on track financially.
The rule of law also protects people from businesses. For example, Congress has enacted antitrust legislation that prevents certain anticompetitive practices, such as colluding and price fixing. Additionally, businesses are prohibited from using deceptive advertising and are held responsible when they manufacture or sell defective products that cause injury.
The rule of law also protects businesses from government. Since everyone is subject to the rule of law, this means that government itself may not overextend its reach when regulating or investigating businesses. Government must play by the rules, too. For example, imagine that our government could do anything, without any limits or jurisdictional restraints. A business operating in such a climate might find itself subject to government closure on a whim, or excessive taxes, or requirements to pay bribes to gain permits to do business. Our rule of law system prevents such abuses.
Without a rule of law system, people would have to exact satisfaction for the wrongs committed against them on their own. They would have to physically protect their own property. This would lead to a breakdown in social structure, and it would result in vigilante justice and physical strength playing primary roles in dispute resolution.
The rule of law system in the United States sets the rules of the game for doing business. It creates a stable environment where plans can be made, property can be protected, expectations can exist, complaints can be made, and rights can be protected. Violation of the law can result in penalties. The rule of law protects business, protects consumers from harmful business practices, and limits government from engaging in abusive practices against businesses.